The essay is a text of a critical nature about a certain debate or question of a scientific nature. In this sense, the essay is discursive, in the sense of showing the positioning and reflections of the author regarding the point under consideration. The author ‘rehearses’ a speech of manifestation from a point of view, from questions, criticisms, experimentations and considerations on the subject.
To this end, the essay, although with clear positioning, presents itself in a formal and well articulated way, in order to expose the author’s reflections and arguments clearly and clearly. Reflections should be made with rationality and seriousness, based on the ability of the author to articulate knowledge and positioning and to carry out interpretations and evaluations about the area in which they reflect. The way of making such articulations is more flexible than in other genres, yet rigor and organization are fundamental, as well as the intellectual commitment and maturity of the essay writer.
Since it defends a point of view, the essay does not require, like the article or dissertations and theses, the extensive inclusion of theoretical references of support or evidence and empirical evidence for each item argued. It is evident that the text must be sensible in its argument, in the sense of offering plausible reflections from what science has already demonstrated in the area, and therefore can not be chaotic or random. In this sense, it is said that the essay is a genre that allows a certain transition between the cultural, the literary, the didactic and the non-didactic, the scientific and the philosophical.
The file is not a publishable material such as an article or a review. It is, in fact, a registry created during the bibliographic research phase to carry out a given study. If the file is well done, it also enables the student to assimilate content. It is a method of storing information and consulting on works read, being able to make a work in full or just a chapter or part that is of interest to the research. As the name suggests, the fichamento is done in fichas, as we will see later in the exemplification of its different types.
Typically, a works file is made so that the content about the subject searched can be accessed more quickly, at the time of writing the text itself. Then, in the file, basically the complete identification of the work (author, publisher, title, translator, edition, city, etc.) and the main points of its content, in summary way, is recorded.
The content (or summary) record focuses on the author’s thinking and the logical development of his / her ideas. It can record not only the progress of these ideas in the text but also their foundations, justifications, examples, etc. This should be done in the words of the author of the file (ie you), who writes with your terms what the author of the work under discussion discusses.
The experience report is a text that describes precisely a given experience that can contribute in a relevant way to its area of activity (for example, a new course given on a subject, a professional project, etc.). It brings the motivations or methodologies for the actions taken in the situation and the considerations / impressions that the experience brought to the one who lived it. The report is made in a contextualized way, with objectivity and theoretical input. In other words, it is not an emotional and subjective narration, nor a mere personal and random digression.
While some argue that in this type of text there is more freedom to describe impressions and to make considerations with a more personal language, others maintain that, being a scientific work, it must maintain the impersonality and seriousness (that is, the non-emotional involvement) that gym requires. Given this dichotomy of thoughts, we recommend, as far as possible, that you always check the tone of the experience reports in your area of practice, the periodicals you would like to publish, and also in annals of previous editions of scientific events of which you want to participate.
In any case, the report must bring considerations (from the experience on which it is reported and reflected) that are significant for the area of study in question. That is, it is important that your account is not just at the level of describing a situation. It must go beyond and establish ponderings and reflections, based on the experience reported and its respective theoretical apparatus. It is hoped that such experiences may contribute to other researchers in the field, extending the effect of their experience as a potential example for other studies and experiences.
The experience report usually includes an introduction with a theoretical framework of reference for the experience. Next, it sets out the objectives of the experience and exposes the methodologies used to carry out such an experience, including a description of the context and procedures. After that, we present the observed results and the considerations drawn from them.
On many occasions, especially in courses and selections of masters and doctorates, it is common for students to write a research project. The research project is basically a document that explains to your readers (usually members of an assessment bank) what you intend to do in the proposed research.
Therefore, a typical research project typically contains the following elements:
It is clear, then, that the elements of the research project are similar to the first elements of the classical academic text, such as the article, CBT, monograph, thesis and dissertation. For a detailed explanation of each of these elements (introduction, literature review and method), click here.
In addition, the research project may contain pre- and post-textual elements. They are usually:
However, there are at least 3 major differences between the final work and the research project. These are:
Your research project is about what you are still going to do. As such, it is usually written in the future, while its final text (dissertation, thesis, etc.) is written in the past because it refers to something you have already done;
It is expected that the sections of the final text will be more developed than those of the project, once you have had more time and dedication to work. Therefore, it is not recommended simply to turn your project into the first chapters of your final text. Instead, take it as a base, broadening where necessary and possible;
In the research project, you have to add a schedule of activities, which usually corresponds to a table showing the steps you will follow in the course of the next few months or years to complete your research and your final text. The example below (fictitious) can serve as the basis for your timeline.
Graduation course work (TCCs), specialization monographs, master’s dissertations and doctoral theses are similar texts in terms of language, style and structure (ie, they are composed of pretextual, textual elements and post-textual). However, these types of work are very different in terms of their degrees of complexity, detail and originality.
Of course, from the first text (the CBT) to the last (the thesis), the degrees of complexity and detail increase progressively and significantly, following the researcher’s own intellectual maturation, in his processes of obtaining the title of graduate or bachelor, specialist, master or doctor. This progression is also in line with the better instrumentation of the student, who, advancing in his postgraduate studies, becomes better able to perform methodological procedures and deal with more research problems dense The question of originality is a primordial requirement of the doctoral thesis, since it requires a new effective contribution to be aggregated for a given area of studies.
On the similarities, the style of the text requires clear, concise, formal, impersonal, objective language, with sober tone and presenting rigor and textual organization that respect the parts of the study and the proposed objectives. The structure, in general, must include in all these types of work a logical order of introduction of the study, its development, and the respective conclusions about the research conducted (see here), in addition to the pre- and post-textual elements.
Let us see the specific definitions for these works, according to the guidelines of the Association of Technical Standards:
As published in the standards NBR 14724, 2002 *, the graduation course (TCCs) and the specialization course (monographs) must “express knowledge of the chosen subject, which must be mandatorily emanated from the discipline, module, study independent, course, program and others ministered “.
The Master’s Dissertation, in turn, “represents the result of an experimental work or exposition of a retrospective scientific study, with a unique theme and well delimited in its extension, with the objective of gathering, analyzing and interpreting information. It should show the knowledge of existing literature on the subject and the ability to systematize the candidate “.
The doctoral thesis, which, like the dissertation, also deals with experimental work or elucidation of a study on a specific topic, still requires its elaboration “based on original research, constituting a real contribution to the specialty in question “.